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Chrysanthemum Manual of the National Chrysanthemum Society

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Chrysanthemum-growing societies are a tradition in the Western Cape with more than 100 years of history. This is according to Michael Le Cordeur, vice-dean of learning and teaching at Stellenbosch University’s education faculty and vice-chairperson of the Wellington Horticultural Society (WHS).

Lots marked ‘x’ in dark blue are subject to importation duty of 5% on the hammer price unless exported outside the EU. Chatterjee J, Mandal AK, Ranade SA, Datta SK (2005) Estimation of genetic diversity of four Chrysanthemum mini cultivars using RAPD. Pak J Biol Sci 8(4):546–549

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Gilbertz DA (1992) Chrysanthemum response to timing of paclobutrazol and uniconazole sprays. Am Soc Horticult Sci 27(4):322–323 Saturday and Sunday, 25 and 26 April Public viewing at the Paper Money Fair, Valkenburg, Holland (Lots 364-672 only)

Michael Le Cordeur is the vice-dean of learning and teaching at Stellenbosch University’s education faculty and vice-chairperson of the Wellington Horticultural Society, he says. This society is the first chrysanthemum society founded in South Africa, he says. His parents have been part of this society for more than 60 years, Le Cordeur shares. Chrysanthemum growing is “an art that gets passed down from generation to generation”, he adds. PHOTO: Supplied/Michael Le CordeurAfter learning from his mistakes and building up enough experience, Mentoor went on to win numerous shows, he says. “You have to be determined,” he adds. Before the National Chrysanthemum Society of South Africa was founded, different chrysanthemum societies in the Western Cape had different rules and criteria for judging flowers, says Richard Williams, treasurer of the National Chrysanthemum Society of South Africa. The national society ensured consistency across different societies, he says. AUDIO: Joel Ontong Lauritzen Gardens at the Omaha Botanical Center. No dates given – just “Fall.” https://www.lauritzengardens.org/Visit/Events_and_Exhibits/Fall_Chrysanthemum_Display/index.asp#_1 Barberton, Ohio In 1920, the Mennonite brothers Ira and Menno Yoder bought the Anna Dean Farm’s Perennial Gardens and Greenhouse Department from the estate of Barberton town founder O. C. Barber. As Yoder Brothers’ Incorporated, the company began growing flowers around 1930, eventually becoming the world leader in mum and aster breeding, expanding production internationally. The North American headquarters of Aris Horticulture, Inc. (formerly Yoder Brothers Inc), is located in Barberton, Ohio. This class has long, tubular, ray florets that hook or coil at the end. The florets can be fine or coarse. The florets fall in a loose mass and look like they have barbs on their ends. Intricate spider mums look like fireworks displays. Class 12 - Brush and Thistle In this category the florets curve downward. The tops of the bloom have a somewhat flattened appearance when they are fully open. Some people describe the flowers as having a mop-like appearance. Others say that the way the florets tend to overlap make the flower look like plumage on a bird. These flowers are not as large as Irregular Incurve but they can still span 4 to 6 inches in diameter. Class 3- Regular Incurve

The WHS is the first chrysanthemum society in South Africa, founded in 1916, according to Le Cordeur. “We survived the flu epidemic in 1918, the first world war, the second world war, Apartheid, we survived Covid, and we’re still existing,” he says. Renou JP, Brochard P, Jalouzot R (1993) Recovery of transgenic chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev.) after hygromycin resistance selection. Plant Sci 89:185–197 Miyazaki S, Tashiro Y, Kanazawa K, Takeshita A, Oshima T (1982) On the flower characteristics and the chromosome numbers of Higo chrysanthemum ( Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.). Bull Fac Agric Saga Univ 52:1–11

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The Chrysanthemum flower originates from China and was originally used for herbal tea, says Richard Williams, treasurer of the National Chrysanthemum Society of South Africa. There are different species and cultivars of chrysanthemums, according to Williams. “In most cases [for growing] we used the old English cultivars. These days with the men bringing in new flowers, we use Japanese cultivars and Chinese cultivars,” he says. PHOTOS: Supplied/Richard Williams

Popham RA, Chan AP (1950) Zonation in the vegetative stem-tip of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Am J Bot 37:476–484 Nazeer MA (1981) Karyological studies in two species of Chrysanthemum L. Cell Chrom Newslett 4(2):33–35 The 2023 Mum Show will be held on September 23 and 24, 2023. More details are available at https://www.cityofbarberton.com/246/Mum-Festival United Kingdom National Chrysanthemum Society, United Kingdom Chatterjee J, Mandal AK, Ranade SA, Datta SK (2006a) Intravarietal variation of miniature Chrysanthemum cultivars using random amplified polymorphic DNA. Hortic Environ Biotechnol 47(4):192–192 The Botanic Garden of Smith College, 16 College Lane, Northampton MA 01063. November 5 – 20, 2023. Additional information at Botanic Gardens of Smith College.These chrysanthemums have a small, globe-like bloom that is flatter when young and becomes round as it ages. The florets are either incurved or reflex in a regular fashion. The flower size can range from 1 to 4 inches. Class 7 - Single and Semi-Double Williams is also the secretary of the Pniel Horticultural and Industrial Society (PHIS), founded in 1981, he says. In tandem with chrysanthemum growing competitions some societies also hold competitions for baking, knitting, embroidery and flower arrangements – which is what ‘industrial’ refers to, according to Williams. Wolff K, Rijn PV, Hofstra H (1994) RFLP analysis in chrysanthemum probe and primer development. Theor Appl Genet 88(3–4):472–478. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00223663 Darlington CD (1973) Chromosoma botany and the origins of cultivated plants, 3rd edn. G. Allen and Unwin Ltd., London

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